Facilities



Aquaculture Production And Environment Division

Objectives

  • Technology development for breeding, seed production and grow-out culture of important cultivable freshwater fin fishes and shellfishes.
  • Develop new culture systems for freshwater aquaculture.
  • Techniques for improved soil and water quality management for higher production.
  • Dissemination of developed technologies through training and demonstration.


Major Areas of Research

  • Captive broodstock development, breeding, seed production and culture of carps, barbs, murrels, koi, magur, pangas, pabda, freshwater prawn, ornamental fishes and freshwater mussel.
  • New diversified system development for production of varied fish and shellfish species- Aquaponics, Biofloc, FIMTA, RAS, etc.
  • Soil and water quality management for higher production.
  • Water budget modeling of freshwater fish production system.
  • Technology development for climate resilient aquaculture.


Staff Strength of APED (HQ)

Scientific staff Technical staff Supporting staff
Category In position Category In position Category In position
HoD 01 Sr. Technical officer 04 Skilled Supporting Staff 18
Principal Scientist 07 Technical Assistant 04 SRF/JRF/TA/LA 08
Senior Scientist 02 Contractual labourer 47
Scientist 08

Scientific Staff

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Dr. Bindu Raman Pillai

HOD

Prawn Breeding & Culture

Bindu.Pillai@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Saroj Kumar Swain

Principal Scientist

Ornamental fish breeding & culture

Saroj.Swain@icar.gov.in

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Dr. (Mrs.) Prabhati Sahoo

Principal Scientist

Carp Culture

P.Sahoo@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Sangram Ketan Sahoo

Principal Scientist

Catfish Breeding & Culture

Sangram.Sahoo@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Padmanav Routray

Principal Scientist

Carp & Tilapia breeding, hatchery management, Cryopreservation

Padmanav.Routray@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Bikash Chandra Mohapatra

Principal Scientist

Plastics in Aquaculture

Bikash.Mohapatra@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Pratap Chandra Das

Principal Scientist

Carp culture

Pratap.Das@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Satyanarayan Sethi

Principal Scientist

Carp culture

Sathyanarayana.Sethi@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Shailesh Saurabh

Senior Scientist

Perl culture

Shailesh.Saurabh@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Rajesh kumar

Senior Scientist

Air Breathing fish culture

Rajesh.Kumar3@icar.gov.inn

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Dr. Debabrata Panda

Scientist

Prawn Breeding & culture

Debabrata.Panda@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Subhas Sarkar

Scientist

Soil & Water chemistry

Subhas.Sarkar@icar.gov.in

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Ferosekhan

Scientist

Catfish Breeding & culture

Ferose.KhanS@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Pankaj Kumar Tiwari

Scientist

Soil & Water chemistry

Pankaj.Tiwari@icar.gov.in

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Sunil S. Ail

Scientist

Ornamental fish Breeding & culture

Sunil.Sail@icar.gov.in

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Sweta Pradhan

Scientist

Pearl culture

sweta.pradhan@icar.gov.in

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Jackson Debbarma

Scientist

Air Breathing fish breeding & culture, Fish health management

jackson.debbarma@icar.gov.in

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Technical Staff

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Dr. Dhananjay Kumar Verma

Senior Techical Officer

Dhananjaya.Verma@icar.gov.in

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Er. Phani Bhusan Bhakat

Senior Technical Officer

Phani.Bhakat@icar.gov.in

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Dr. Bibhudatta Mishra

Senior Technical Officer

Bibhudatta.Mishra@icar.gov.in

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Mr. Sovan Sahu

Technical Officer

Sovan.Sahu@icar.gov.in

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Suratha Kumar Naik

Technical Officer

Suratha.Naik@icar.gov.in

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Mr. Suresh Chandra Panda

Technical Assistant

Suresh.Panda@icar.gov.in

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Mr. Dukhia Mahji

Senior Technical Assistant

Dukhia.Majhi@icar.gov.in

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Mr. Lingaraj Muduli

Technical Officer

Lingaraj.Muduli@icar.gov.in

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Mr. Affcer Mohammad

Technical Assistant

Affcer.Mohamed@icar.gov.in

Services offered

Water and soil quality testing for fish farmers

Infrastructure/Units

The division has excellent infrastructure for breeding and culture of finfish and shellfishes. The important infrastructure facilities include:

Hatcheries for

  • Major Carp and minor carps
  • Catfish
  • Air breathing fishes (Murrels and Anabas)
  • Freshwater prawns
  • Ornamental fishes
  • Tilapia
  • Concrete Nursery systems of various sizes
  • Earthen ponds of various size and shapes
  • Laboratory for soil and water quality measurements
  • Recirculatory Aquaculture System
  • Aquaponics Unit
  • Cryolab

Image Gallery

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Aquaponics
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Aquaponics
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Aquaponics
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Aquarium
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Auto Feeder
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Cryopreservation
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Designer Pearls with cross
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Freshwater pearls
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FRP Carp Hatchery Technology
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FRP hatchery
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Murrel hatchery
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Prawn hatchery
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Tilapia Hatchery
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Mobile fish vending unit

Aquaculture Production And Environment Division


On-going Institute Projects

# Project Title PI Duration
01 Development of Captive Breeding, Larval rearing and culture of Freshwater Pearl Mussel, Lamellidens marginalis S. Saurabh 2017-21
02 Stock development of indigenous Ornamental fish, Channa species of NE states S. K. Swain 2017-21
03 Selective breeding & demonstration of improved breed of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii B. R. Pillai 2018-21
04 Design and development of a Freshwater Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (FIMTA) system for selected cultivable aquatic species D. Panda 2018-21
05 Effect of Zinc and Iron Enrichments on Freshwater Plankton Productivity and growth of improved Rohu (Labeo rohita H.) P. K. Tiwari 2018-21
06 Protocol development for control of noxious algal bloom in culture ponds S. Mohanty 2018-21
07 Protocol development for breeding and seed rearing of Mystus cavasius in captivity S. Mohanty 2019-22
08 Inducing sterility in carps and tilapia using different biochemical agents P. Routray 2020-23
09 Standardization of broodstock development and seed rearing of striped murrel, Channa striata in recircualtory aquaculture system Rajesh Kumar 2020-23
10 Development of protocol for organic fish farming: A sustainable production approach in freshwater ecosystem S.N. Sethi 2020-23


On-going Externally Funded Projects

# Project Title PI Duration Funding Source
01 AICRP on Plasticulture Engineering and Technology Centre at ICAR-CIFA B. C. Mohapatra 1988-continue ICAR
02 Dissemination of minor carp production technology and its refinement for greater adoptability by the aquaculture farmers P. C. Das April 2018 – March 2021 NFDB
03 Consortia Research Platform on water: CIFA component 3.2: Water budgeting and enhancing water productivity by multiple use of water in different aquaculture production system P. C. Das Dec 2015- March 2021 ICAR
04 Network project on Ornamental fish breeding and culture (NPOFBC). CIFA Component: Breeding and culture of freshwater ornamental fishes, Trichogaster chuna and Dawkinsia assimilis S. K. Swain July 2018- March 2025 ICAR
05 Development of sustainable aquaculture practices through life cycle analysis (LCA) of selected aquaculture production systems and Yield gap analysis and performance evaluation of improved varieties of carp and freshwater prawn (ICAR-WorldFish Collaborative project) B. R. Pillai April 2019 - March 2022 WorldFish

Aquaculture Production And Environment Division


  1. Captive breeding and seed production

  2. The Captive breeding and seed production technology for the following species was developed

  • Multiple breeding of Indian Major Carps (IMC); catla, rohu & mrigal
  • Carp: Labeo fimbriatus, L. gonius, Puntius sarana. P. pulchelus, P.gonionotus and Osteobrama belangeri
  • Catfish:,Clarias magur, Pangasius pangasius, Rita chrysea, Horabagras brachysoma and Mystus cavasius
  • Freshwater mussel: Lamellidens marginalis
  • Air breathing fishes: Anabas testudineus, Channa striata, marulius
  • Ornamental fishes: Dawkinsia tambraparniei, Dawkinsia filamentosa, Pethia narayani, Trichogaster chuna
  • Freshwater prawns: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, malcolmsonii
  • Cryopreservation of carp gametes and stock upgradation using cryomilt


  1. Selective breeding
  • First family based selective breeding programme was undertaken in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and produced 11th generation of selectively bred prawn with a selection response ranging from 4 to 7% per generation.
  • Shining barb (Pethia conchonius) developed by mass selection method


  1. Grow-out Culture:
  • Carp:
  • Intercropping model for minor carps and barbs
  • Intensive carp culture with production levels of 10-15 tonnes/ha/yr
  • Catfish: Magur production of 2-3 tonnes/ha/yr
  • Air breathing fishes:Climbing perch production of 2.5 tonnes/ha/yr and murrel production of 3.0 tonnes/ha/yr
  • Ornamental fishes: Culture of indigenous ornamental fishes in captive condition
  • Freshwater prawn: Semi-intensive culture with a production of 1.0 to 1.5 tonnes/ha/year


  1. Technology for freshwater pearl production
  • Developed technology for Designer pearl production as well as round pearls from freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis


  1. Aquatic environment:
  • Nutrient budget (C, N and P) for carp culture practices
  • Carbon footprint and carbon sequestration for aquaculture systems
  • Developed a portable mini-lab for water and sediment analysis for freshwater aquaculture


  1. System Diversification
  • Aquaponics: Pilot scale NFT aquaponics system and media bed aquaponics system has been developed
  • Recirculatory Aquaculture System (RAS): RAS system for broodstock development and seed rearing of air breathing fishes
  • Freshwater Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture system (FIMTA): FIMTA system has been developed for production of fish, prawn, mussel and edible aquatic plants


  1. Farm/lab/hatchery gadgets & mechanization
  • Manual Cryo freezer
  • Mechanical applicator
  • Portable FRP hatchery for carps and catfishes.
  • Demand fish feeder


Patents

# Title & Patent No. Inventor(s) Date of patent grant
01 Mechanical Pond applicator (design)
Patent No. 251022
P. C. Das, J. K. Jena, N. Sarangi, S. Ayyappan 21.05.2007
02 A manually operated low cost handy cryofreezer for gamete cryopreservation.
Patent No. 251022
P. Routray, S. D. Gupta, S. C. Rath, N. Sarangi 16.02.2012
03 Mechanical fish harvestor (design) K. K. Sharma, C. D. Sahoo, S. Chand, S. K. Nayak, B. Sarkar and N Sarangi 18.09.2015
04 Spring-less apparatus for holding pearl bivalves during a pearl production surgical operation
No. 201731011799A
Dr. Shailesh Saurabh, Dr. Rajesh Kumar, Dr. U. L. Mohanty, Ms. Sweta Pradhan 05.10.2018
05 An improved aeration device for large aquaculture pond
Patent No. 313754
Dr. Hardial Singh and Dr. S. K. Swain 04.06.2019

Technologies Commercialized


Name of the technology commercialized
Name of the public/private Agency Period Revenue sharing Arrangement Revenue earned / year
FRP Portable Carp Hatchery M. R. Aquatech, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 22/02/2013-2020 Exclusive ₹ 13,15000.00/- +Royality
Manual cryofreezer for gamete cryopreservation M/S Biotechnika, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 24/02/2012 Exclusive ₹ 2,49,000/-





Technologies available for commercialization

# Technology / Know-how
01 Mobile fish vending trolley for hygienic fish marketing
02 Mechanical Pond applicator
03 A diesel operated new aeration device for large aquaculture ponds
04 Portable mini carp hatchery
05 FRP demand fish feeder
06 Biofert and Planktofert
07 Broodstock diet for murrel

Technologies Transfer

  • Created alternative livelihood through fish based farming system in tribal areas/ hamlets and north eastern states through STC/TSP, SCSP and NEH programme.
  • Demonstration of breeding and culture of diversified freshwater fishes at different states of India
  • Improved aquaculture technologies were transferred to the farming community and various state government officials through training programme, consultancy programmes, Radio and TV programmes.

Aquaculture Production And Environment Division

# Title Journal Authors Year
Growth performance of pengba, Osteobrama belangeri (Valenciennes, 1844) and water quality changes during fingerling rearing with varied stocking density in large outdoor concrete tanks Aquac. Res. 51: 982-988 Das, P.C., Sahoo, P.K., Mohanty, S., Mishra, M. and Swain, S.K. 2020
Influence of rearing tank colour on Asian catfish, magur (clarias magur) and pangas (Pangasius pangasius) larval growth and survival Aquaculture, 521, p.735080 Ferosekhan, S., Sahoo, S.K., Radhakrishnan, K., Velmurugan, P., Shamna, N., Giri, S.S. and Pillai, B.R. 2020
Changes in ovary and testis and breeding fitness of the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792), exposed to sub‐lethal concentrations of monocrotophos Aquac. Res Mohapatra, S., Kumar, R., Patnaik, S. T., Mishra, C. S., Sahoo, L., & Sundaray, J. K 2020
Length-weight, width-weight and height-weight relationships of cultured freshwater pearl mussel, Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck, 1819) Indian J. Fish., 67(1): 157-160 Sweta Pradhan, Shailesh Saurabh, Nandini Padhi, Tarkeshwar Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, U. L. Mohanty and J. K. Sundaray 2020
Compatibility of pengba, Osteobrama belangeri (Valenciennes) with Indian major carps and evaluation of its ideal incorporation level in carp polyculture system in planes of India Aquaculture DOI: 10.1016.734845 Das, P.C., Sahoo, P.K., Kamble, S.P., Murmu, K. and Basudha, C. 2019
Length–weight relationship and growth performance of different life stages of hatchery‐produced magur, Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822) Aquac. Res., 50: 1431-1436 Sahoo, S. K., Ferosekhan, S., Giri, S.S., Radhakrishnan, K., Panda, D., Sri Hari, M. and Pillai B. R. 2019
Optimising water requirement of nursery rearing of rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton,1822) in large outdoor concrete tanks: influence of water depth on seed performance Indian J. Fish. 66(4), pp.151-156 Das, P.C., Kamble, S.P 2019
Effect of feeding frequency on growth, feed utilization and cannibalism in climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch 1792) fry Indian J. Fish., 66(1): 106-111 Lipsha Dash, Rajesh Kumar, Kedar Nath Mohanta, Utkal Laxmi Mohanty, Bindu R. Pillai and Jitendra Kumar Sundaray 2019
Efficacy of certain chemicals against leech, Glossiphonia complanata (L) on freshwater pearl mussel Lamellidens marginalis (L) J. of Ent. Zool.Studies; 7(6): 637-641 Sweta Pradhan, SS Dey, S Samantaray, Nandini Padhi, PK Tiwari and Shailesh Saurabh 2019
Designer Pearl Production in freshwater: an upcoming technology Indian Farming, 69(4): 56-59 Pradhan, Sweta, Shailesh Saurabh and J. K. Sundaray 2019
Standardization of stocking density of Cyprinus Carpio Var. Koi (Linnaeus, 1758), spawn Reared in non-aerated systems Fish. Technol. 55 (2018) : 1-5 Swain S.K., Sahoo S., Patra P. and Bairwa M.K. 2018
Growth performance and compatibility of pacu, Piaractus brachypomus with Indian major carps in polyculture system Aquaculture, 490, 236-239 Kumar A., Pradhana, P.K., Das, P.C., Srivastava, S.M., Lal, K.K., Jena, J.K 2018
Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies of Climate Change Impact in Freshwater Aquaculture in some states of India Journal of Fisheries Sciences. Com; 12(1):16-21 S Adhikari, Chaudhury Ajit Keshav, Gangadhar Barlaya, Ramesh Rathod, RN Mandal, Sarosh Ikmail, GS Saha, HK De, I Sivaraman, AS Mahapatra, S Sarkar, P Routray, Bindu R Pillai, JK Sundaray 2018
Reports on common deformities in induced bred Horabagrus brachysoma larvae Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(3): 462-465 Sahoo, S.K., Ferosekhan, S., Giri, S.S., Paramanik, M. and Radhakrishnan, K 2018
Broodstock development, captive breeding and seed production of bagrid catfish, Mahanadi rita, Rita chrysea (Day, 1877) Aquaculture, 503: 339-346 Ferosekhan, S., Sahoo, S.K., Giri, S.S., Das, B.K., Pillai, B.R., Das, P.C 2018
Biofilm formed on different natural substrates enhances the growth and survival in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879) juveniles Indian J. Fish., 65(1):55-58 Jesna, P.K., Pillai, B.R., N. Naik and H. Pradhan 2018
Effect of feeding rate on growth, survival and cannibalism in striped snakehead Channa striata (Bloch, 1793) fingerlings J. Exp. Zool. India Vol 21, No 1, pp 205-210 Sangeeta Kumari, Tiwari V. K., Babitha Rani A. M., Rajesh Kumar* and Satya Praksah 2018
Comparative studies on carcass characteristics of marketable size farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud.,5(2): 06-09 Sahu, B.B., N.K. Barik, P. Routray, A. Agnibesh, A.Paikaray, S. Mohapatra and J.K. Sundaray 2017
Phenotypic and Genetic Parameters for Body Traits in the Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in India Aquac. Res. DOI: 10.1111/are.1339 Bindu R. Pillai, Lalrinsanga, P.L., Ponzoni, R.W., Khaw, H.L., Mahapatra, K.D., Mohanty, S., Patra, G., Naik, N., Pradhan, H. and P. Jayasankar 2017
Water budgets for freshwater fish ponds of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal, India. Water Sci.Technol Water Supply, 17(3): 835-841 Adhikari, S., K.C. Pani, R.N. Mandal, P.P. Chakrabarti, B.S. Giri and P. Jayasankar 2017
Growth and survival of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) Aquaponics System Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud., 2017; 5(4): 24-29 Anantharaja K., BC Mohapatra, BR Pillai, Rajesh Kumar, C Devaraj and D Majhi 2017
In vitro storage of fish oocytes: effect of storage temperature, media conditions and storage duration on fertilization and larval hatchability of Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita) Aquac. Res., 48(5), pp.2486-2494 Mishra, G., Patra, S., Dash, S.K., Verma, D.K. and Routray, P 2017
Oxygen consumption in fry and fingerling stages of Indian major carps analysed using indigenously developed respirometer Indian J. Fish., 64(1): 91-94 Mohapatra, B.C., Lasky Das, S.K. Mahanta, H. Sahu, P. Sahoo, S. Lenka and K. Anantharaja 2017
Growth of periphyton on different plastic materials in freshwater medium JAdv. Appl. Sci. Res., 7(4):228-234 Mohapatra, B.C., H. Sahu, S.K. Mahanta, S. Lenka, K.Anantharaja and P. Jayasankar 2016
Induced breeding of Indian major carps in FRP hatchery at farmer's field Intl. Res. J. Nat. Appl. Sci., 3(5): 249-257 Mohapatra, B.C., S.K. Mahanta, H. Sahu, D. Majhi and N.K. Barik 2016
Efficacy of exogenous hormone (GnRHa) forinduced breeding of climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) and influence ofoperational sex ratio on spawning success Anim. Reprod. Sci., 171: 114–120 Mandal, B., R. Kumar* and P. Jayasankar 2016
Water budget for carp culture ponds in Odisha, India Water Res. Manag., 6(3): 35-38 Adhikari, S., K.C. Pani, and P. Jayasankar 2016
Effect of dietary incorporation offish/prawn meal on performance of Catla catla (Hamilton) during nursery phase Indian J. Fish., 64: 44-48 Kamble, S.P., P. C. Das, K. C. Parida and K. N. Mohanta 2016
Effect of lime, dolomite and gypsum on phosphorus reduction potential in freshwater Intl. J. Appl. Pure Sci. Agricul. (IJAPSA), 2(10): 44-50 Kavitha, M., S. Adhikari, K.K. Anikuttan and D.L.Prabu 2016
Design & development of FRP mobile fish vending trolley for hygienic fish marketing Int. J. Agricult. Biol.Engineer., 9(1): 19-23 Mohapatra, B. C., P. Sahoo, D. Majhi, K. Anantharaja and P. Jayasankar 2016
Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from freshwater aquaculture ponds Environ. Monit. Assess., 188: 422-426 Anikuttan, K.K., S. Adhikari, M. Kavitha, and P.Jayasankar 2016
Design and development of acrylic respirometer for study of oxygen consumption by fish seed IRA-Int. J.Technol. Engineer., 5(1): 6-11 Mohapatra, B.C. and P. Sahoo 2016
Production of fertile sperm from in vitro propagating enriched spermatogonial stem cells of farmed catfish, Clarias batrachus Zygote, 24(6): 814-824 Nayak, S., S. Ferosekhan, S.K. Sahoo, J.K. Sundaray, P.Jayasankar and H.K. Barman 2016
Transplantation worthiness of cryopreserved germ cells of Indian major carp rohu, Labeo rohita Current Science, pp.739-746 Patra, S., Mishra, G., Dash, S.K., Verma, D.K., Nandi, S., Jayasankar, P. and Routray, P 2016
Embryonic and larval development of an endangered catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma Indian J. Animal Res., 51: 15-20 Sahoo, S.K., S. Ferosekhan, A. Saha, S.S. Giri and M.Paramanik 2016
In-vitro assessment of plankton production using fish hydrolysate Int. J. Inn. Stud. Aquat. Biol. Fish. 2(1): 14-24 Sahu, B. B., B. C. Mohapatra, N. K. Barik, H. Sahu,P. Sahoo, N. C. Biswal, P. K. Mohanty,U. L.Mohanty, S. K. Mahanta, P. Jayasankar 2016
Survival, sex ratio, male morphotype distribution, female reproductive status and tag losses in crosses among three populations of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) in India Aquac. Res. 46, 2644-2655 Bindu R. Pillai, Mahapatra, K.D., Ponzoni, R.W., Sahoo, L., Lalrinsanga, P.L., Mekkawy,W., Khaw, H.L., Nguyen, N.H., Mohanty, S., Sahu, S., Patra, G 2015
Critical water quality changes responsible for seed mortality during closed system fry transportation of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Indian J. Fish., 62 (2): 39-42 Das, P. C., B. Mishra, B. K. Pati and S. S. Mishra 2015
High density rearing of rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) from spawn to fry in concrete tanks: effect of daily feed ration and soil base on fry growth and survival Aqua. Res. DOI: 10.1111/are.12847 Das, P. C., J. K. Jena, B. Patro and D. Mohanta 2015
Embryonic and larval development of yellow tail catfish, Pangasius pangasius J. Aquac. Res. Development, 6:343. doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000343 Ferosekhan, S., S. K. Sahoo, S. S. Giri, A. Sahaand M. Paramanik 2015
Evaluation of growth performance and compatibility of Labeo fimbriatus (Bloch, 1795) with major carps in polyculture system Indian J. Fish., 62 (4) :45-49 Jena, J. K., P. C. Das, G. Mitra, B. Patro, D. Mohanta and B. Mishra 2015
Effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis on haematological and immunological parameters of Catla catla (Hamilton) Aquac. Int. 23(5), 1275-1292 Kumar, R., Mukherjee, S. C., Ranjan, R., Vani, T., Brahmachari, R. K., & Nayak, S. K 2015
Water temperature enhancement in polyhouse tanks in a sub-tropical region during winter season Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud.,3(1): 269-275 Mohapatra, B. C., S. K. Mahanta, H. Sahu, P.Sahoo, P. Mandal, S. Kisku and D. Majhi 2015
Weaning of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae from Artemia nauplii to fish gel food Asian J. Anim. Sci., 10(1): 1-7 Sahu, B. B., B. R. Pillai, G. Patra, P. L., Lalrinsanga,S. Ferosekhan and P. Jayasankar 2015
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon budgets in polyculture ponds of Indian major carps and giant freshwater prawn in Orissa state, India J. Appl. Aqua., 27(4): 365-376 Sahu, B. C., S. Adhikari, A. S. Mahapatra and L.Dey 2015